Chapter 11. Of Justification
Article 1. Those whom God effectually calls, He also freely justifies, not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous. He justifies not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake alone, and not by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness, but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ to them, as they receive and rest on Him and His righteousness by faith alone (which is itself a gift from God).
Article 2. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and His righteousness, is the sole instrument of justification. Yet, it is not alone in the person justified, but is always accompanied with all other saving graces and is not a dead faith, but works by love.
Article 3. Christ, by His obedience and death, fully discharged the debt of all who are justified, having made a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God's justice in their behalf. Yet, inasmuch as He was given by the Father for them, and His obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead, and both freely, not for anything in them, their justification is only of free grace, so that both the exact justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the justification of sinners.
Article 4. God did from all eternity decree to justify all the elect, and Christ did in the fullness of time die for their sins and rise again for their justification. Nevertheless, they are not justified until the Holy Spirit in due time actually applies Christ to them.
Article 5. God continues to forgive the sins of those who are justified, and although they can never fall from the state of justification, they may, by their sins, fall under God's fatherly displeasure and not have the light of His countenance restored unto them until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance.
Article 6. The justification of believers during Old Testament times was, in all these respects, one and the same with the justification of believers according to the New Testament.