Chapter 9. Of Free Will

Article 1. God has endued the will of man with such a natural liberty and power of acting upon choice that it is neither forced, nor by any necessity of nature determined to do good or evil.

Article 2. In his state of innocence, man had freedom and power to will and to do that which was good and well-pleasing to God, yet mutably, so that he might fall from it.

Article 3. By his fall into a state of sin, man has wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation,so that a natural man, being altogether averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not able by his own strength to convert himself or to prepare himself thereto.

Article 4. When God converts a sinner, and translates him into the state of grace, He frees him from his natural bondage under sin, and by His grace alone enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good, yet such that by reason of his remaining corruptions, he does not perfectly, nor only, will that which is good, but also wills that which is evil.

Article 5. This will of man is made perfectly and immutably free to good alone in the state of glory only.

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